Cannabidiol (CBD): Latest Uses in the Treatment of Neurological Disorders
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive and pharmacologically significant component of cannabis, exhibits a number of advantageous properties. Anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective properties have been discovered. The recent resurgence of mainly unproven and uncontrolled cannabis-based preparations on medical therapies may have its largest impact in the field of neurology as the medicinal usage of CBD is becoming more popular for treating a variety of illnesses.
CBD has a tremendous potential to be used as an adjunctive therapy for a variety of neurological diseases. It has shown promise in the treatment of mental diseases as well as neurological conditions like anxiety, chronic pain, trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and essential tremors.
Many therapeutic problems still exist, even though recently FDA-approved prescription medications have shown sufficient safety, efficacy, and consistency for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS). In this post, we’ll cover the research that’s helped us understand how CBD can be used to manage and treat a range of neurological conditions.
Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is a psychotropic drug used recreationally that is also known to have negative effects on one’s health. However, in recent years, regulation and research have focused on cannabis elements other than THC that are pharmacologically significant. Cannabidiol (CBD), which is non-intoxicating but exhibits a number of advantageous pharmacological properties, is the most well-known of them. It has been discovered to have physiological properties like neuroprotection, antioxidation, and anti-inflammatory.
Many believe that neurology is currently at a point where there are no more effective treatments. In the context of complicated neurological illnesses, the currently available single target receptor medication has not consistently shown to be helpful.
- As CBD’s medical applications spread around the globe, it is becoming more and more popular as a treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions like anxiety, chronic pain, trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and vital tremors.
Perspective on Cannabidiol through Time (CBD)
Since 1000 BC, the cannabis genus of flowering plants has been used for various purposes. Early evidence points to the use of it for religious and therapeutic purposes by the Chinese and Indian populations. W.B. O’Shaughnessy did not bring cannabis into western medicine until 1839. During this time, people with arthritis and epileptic conditions, respectively, were using cannabis for its analgesic and sedative effects.
- �The practical therapeutic use of cannabis was underlined by the rising favorable benefits on patients’ health and the dearth of negative effects. This inspired researchers to look into the processes behind its cellular and molecular effects.
However, several issues prevented it from realizing its therapeutic promise and advancing science. Pharmacodynamics, a lack of consistent production techniques, political restrictions, and the development of more effective medicines like opiates were some of these challenges.
The second-most common bioactive ingredient in Cannabis sativa, CBD, is non-psychoactive. Therefore, it has been evaluated for the treatment of a variety of pathologies including chronic pain, essential tremor (ET), Parkinson’s (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder, and epilepsy due to its non-psychoactive characteristics as well as its comparatively low toxicity and addiction profile.
- Recent clinical studies evaluating the effects of CBD on the illnesses show that CBD may be used as an adjuvant therapy when other treatments are not completely effective.
Cannabidiol: Mechanisms of Action (MOA)
The way that CBD interacts with several receptors to reduce the proliferation of inflammatory cells explains why it has anti-inflammatory effects. For instance:
- Leukocytes (component of the immune system that help fight infections or sickness) (part of the immune system that help fight infections or disease)
- COX1 and COX2 pathways block inflammatory response pathways.
- They reduce the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines (cells that regulate inflammatory responses)
Both cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and type 2 cannabinoid receptors are present in the human neurological system (CB2).
- The psychological effects on pleasure, memory, cognition, attention, sensory and temporal perceptions, and coordinated movement are assumed to be caused by CB1, which is mostly found in the central nervous system.
- Most peripheral organs and immune cells have CB2 receptors, which contribute to inflammation.
Although CBD has a low affinity for the CB2 receptor, it can act at low dosages as an antagonist and inverse agonist to prevent immune cells from migrating and reduce inflammation. However, the effects that are not dependent on the CB2 receptor play a substantial part in controlling inflammation.
- The modification of pathways in the inflammatory process is how they act in this situation. CBD has been demonstrated to have antioxidant qualities that are neuroprotective in addition to its anti-inflammatory properties.
The variety of CBD’s pharmacological applications has led to the consideration of numerous drug delivery methods. The bioavailability of CBD, which is produced from hemp, varies greatly depending on how it is administered.
- CBD bioavailability varies between 13 and 19% when taken orally, compared to 31% when breathed.
Currently Applicable Neurological Applications
- Preliminary research published in 2007, Nurmikko found that 26% of individuals undergoing Nabiximol analgesic therapy experienced subjective pain scores for peripheral neuropathy that had improved by more than 30%. (Oromucosal CBD spray). An RCT in rheumatoid arthritis patients found statistically significant improvements in analgesia and sleep quality in the Nabiximols-treated individuals compared to the placebo-controlled group. Overall, the positive safety profile and encouraging preliminary results support further study of the use of Nabiximols for chronic non-cancer pain.
- In the limited completed studies, most of the statistically significant advantages of CBD in PD patients have been associated with increases in subjective quality of life and decreases in symptoms of PD-related psychosis.
- An oral dose of CBD reduced (and in some cases eliminated) agitation, kicking, nightmares, and/or aggressive behavior in four Parkinson’s disease patients who also had comorbid REM sleep behavior disorder, according to a 2014 case report.
- An early trial in PD patients found dose-related reductions in movement symptoms (ranging from 20 to 50%) in patients treated over a 6-week period with oral doses of CBD. These improvements were claimed to reduce PD-related tremor.
Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN)
- Numerous investigations have shown that a chemical linked to cannabis is remarkably efficient in reducing TN pain in people, and this subject needs further investigation. Its indisputable potential as an alternative treatment for those with refractory (treatment resistant, or TR) TN is demonstrated by the multiplicity of molecular mechanisms through which CBD can provide analgesic benefits.
There is only one CBD prescription medication on the market right now, and it is used to treat two uncommon hereditary epilepsy conditions. However, because of current clinical trials and extensive pharmaceutical industry research, CBD has a remarkable potential to replace conventional medicine in several medical fields, including the treatment of pain, neuro-cognitive disorders, and neuro-psychiatric illnesses.